Simultaneous Localization and Map Building in Large-Scale Cyclic Environments Using the Atlas Framework

TitleSimultaneous Localization and Map Building in Large-Scale Cyclic Environments Using the Atlas Framework
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2004
AuthorsBosse M, Newman P, Leonard JJ, Teller S
Volume23
Pagination1113-1139
Abstract

In this paper we describe Atlas, a hybrid metrical/topological approach to simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) that achieves efficient mapping of large-scale environments. The representation is a graph of coordinate frames, with each vertex in the graph representing a local frame and each edge representing the transformation between adjacent frames. In each frame, we build a map that captures the local environment and the current robot pose along with the uncertainties of each. Each map’s uncertainties are modeled with respect to its own frame. Probabilities of entities with respect to arbitrary frames are generated by following a path formed by the edges between adjacent frames, computed using either the Dijkstra shortest path algorithm or breath-first search. Loop closing is achieved via an efficient map-matching algorithm coupled with a cycle verification step. We demonstrate the performance of the technique for post-processing large data sets, including an indoor structured environment (2.2 km path length) with multiple nested loops using laser or ultrasonic ranging sensors.